Indian Journal of Finance | Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management | Arthshastra: Indian Journal of Economics & Research |

   Volume 45 • Number 11 • November 2015

The Variation of Consumer Anthropomorphism across Cultures
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(11), 7 - 16
Over the last 8 years, marketing research has begun to empirically probe consumer anthropomorphism or instances when consumers treat a product as human in one or more ways. Though theories of anthropomorphism commonly recognize that the phenomenon varies across cultures, no empirical effort in marketing or any other discipline has demonstrated this. The present research conducted a survey in India and the United States regarding four products commonly owned by students. The results demonstrated that for Indian consumers, product anthropomorphism is more commonplace, but less influential on their product evaluations as compared to American consumers.
Keywords: anthropomorphism, cross-cultural, India, USA
Paper Submission Date : January 11, 2015 ; Paper sent back for Revision : May 19, 2015 ; Paper Acceptance Date : July 23, 2015
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17 Hart, P. M., Jones, S. R., & Royne, M. B. (2013). The human lens: How anthropomorphic reasoning varies by product complexity and enhances personal value. Journal of Marketing Management, 29 (1-2), 105-121. DOI:10.1080/0267257X.2012.759993
18 Keaveney, S. M., Herrmann, A., Befurt, R., & Landwehr, J. R. (2012). The eyes have it: How a car's face influences consumer categorization and evaluation of product line extensions. Psychology & Marketing, 29 (1), 36-51. DOI: 10.1002/mar.20501
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26 Singh, S., & Sapre, A. (2015). Measuring advertising effectiveness through inter-modulation of affect and cognition. Indian Journal of Marketing, 45 (3), 24-38.
27 Waytz, A., Morewedge, C. K., Epley, N., Monteleone, G., Gao, J. H., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Making sense by making sentient: Effectance motivation increases anthropomorphism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99 (3), 410 - 435. DOI: 10.1037/a0020240
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Phillip M. Hart
Assistant Professor of Marketing, Westfield State University
577 Western Avenue, Westfield, MA 01086, USA.
Subhash Jha
Assistant Professor of Marketing, Indian Institute of Management Udaipur
MLSU Campus, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan.
A Study on Brand Preference and Brand Switching Behaviour of Bt Cotton Farmers in Andhra Pradesh
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(11), 17 - 28
After the introduction of transgenic cotton, Bt cotton gained popularity amongst the farmers in Andhra Pradesh. It created interest among the seed companies to release more transgenic cotton varieties in the country. To reduce the difference between prices of Hybrid and Bt cotton varieties, the Government of Andhra Pradesh forced the seed companies to reduce the prices to curb monopolistic practices. Price reduction motivated the farmers to adopt Bt cotton, which led to the introduction of more varieties from the companies' side. This study was carried out in Tamsi and Jainath mandals of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh. The results of the study indicated that dealers were the major source of information for farmers to purchase various Bt cotton seed brands. Brahmma and Mallika were the most popular brands among the farmers in the study area. Majority of the farmers purchased Bt cotton seeds from the district private dealers by paying in cash. The sample farmers ranked high-yielding character of brands as a major influencing factor for the purchase of Bt cotton seeds and majority of the sample farmers were highly satisfied with fiber quality and were highly dissatisfied with the germination of Bt cotton seeds. Majority of the farmers were not ready for brand switchover, and the irrigated farmers were more loyal to their brands than the rainfed farmers. Variables such as yield performance, resistance to pest and disease, seed germination, new varieties, and new technology were found to be an important reason for brand switching.

Keywords: brand preference, brand switching, Bt cotton seeds, Garrett Ranking, Factor Analysis

Paper Submission Date : February 12, 2015 ; Paper sent back for Revision : April 6, 2015 ; Paper Acceptance Date : September 19, 2015

1 Arora, A., & Bansal, S. (2012). Diffusion of Bt Cotton in India: Impact of Seed Prices and Varietal Approval. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 34 (1), 102-118.
2 Balasubramanian, M., & Eswaran, R. (2008). Marketing practices and problems of cotton cultivars in Virudhunagar District. Indian Journal of Marketing, 38 (7), 27-32.
3 Choudhary, B., & Gaur, K. (2011). Adoption and impact of Bt Cotton in India, 2002 to 2010. New Delhi: ISAAA Biotech Information Centre.
4 Choudhary, B., & Gaur, K. (2015). Biotech cotton in India, 2002 to 2014. ISAAA Series of Biotech Crop Profiles. New York: ISAAA Biotech Information Centre.
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8 Lalitha, N. (2004). Diffusion of agricultural biotechnology and intellectual property rights: Emerging issues in India. Ecological Economics, 49 (2), 187 - 198. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.03.022
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10 Ramachandran, R. (2002). Green signal for Bt Cotton. Frontline, 19 (8), 45-48.
11 Yatnalli, C.S. (2010). Adoption of Bt cotton and its impact : A case study of Haveri District, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Marketing, 40 (12), 8-18.
C. Velavan
Assistant Professor, Department of Trade and Intellectual Property, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu.
velavanc@tnau.ac.in , velavanc@yahoo.co.in

S. Naveen Kumar
Postgraduate Scholar, Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-6410 03, Tamil Nadu.
S. Varadha Raj
Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu.
Indian Consumers’ Materialistic Values : An Examination of Dimensionality and Instrument Development Through Exploratory Factor Analysis
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(11), 29-41
In this research paper, I attempted to find out the dimensions /factors of materialistic values/ materialism of Indian consumers, which is a behavior demonstrated by the consumers world over to obtain worldly possessions. There is sufficient discourse present in extant literature about the materialistic tendency of Western consumers or the consumers from the developed parts of the world. However, the presence of this particular consumer behavioral trait is yet to be completely understood in the less affluent societies of the world, which are no longer isolated from the global marketing activities of the international marketers due to the forces of globalization. Today, the consumers of these developing markets have also become an attractive consumer segment to cater to by MNCs because of the factors like globalization of the market place, rising disposable incomes, and changing culture and lifestyle. In such a scenario, a potent research instrument to gauge the materialistic value of Indian consumers would be of great use for international markets, research scholars, and policy makers. The present research examined the dimensions of materialism through the use of content validity study, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability analysis of the adapted materialism scales of Belk (1985) and Richins and Dawson (1992).
Keywords :  materialism, globalization, content validity, factor analysis, scale development, reliability
Paper Submission Date :  March 15, 2015 ; Paper sent back for Revision : June 18, 2015 ; Paper Acceptance Date : August 6 , 2015
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12 Moore, K.A.,& Berger, P.D. (2015). Materialism and consumer behaviour: Differences in types of materialism among different cultures. Indian Journal of Marketing, 45 (1), 9 -18.
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Aastha Verma Vohra
Doctoral Scholar, Faculty of Management Studies (FMS), University of Delhi, University Enclave, Delhi - 110 007.
Determinants of Customer Satisfaction in Context of Retail Malls: Empirical Evidence from India
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(11), 42-56
The Indian consumer market has seen a significant growth in the number of modern-day shopping centers, popularly known as 'malls'. This industry is changing at a very fast pace, and global competition has brought new demands such as the provision for additional facilities and flexibility within malls. The uncertain business environment has brought into question traditional notions of managing retail infrastructure and puts pressure on mall administrations to attract more footfalls in their malls to attract global/national retailers. Highlighting the importance of customer satisfaction in context of shopping malls, the current study explored the factors (using factor analysis), which could impact customer satisfaction. Higher satisfaction scores across the items of atmosphere dimensions suggested that atmosphere was an important dimension which customers used as a cue to evaluate any shopping mall. Furthermore, the image of the mall, number of events organized, and the promotional schemes & discounts offered within the mall premises were also evaluated by the consumers. Customers visiting the malls expect sales promotion schemes and discounts to be offered to them. The managements/managers of malls should also organize special events within the mall premises to attract customers' attention.
Keywords: customer satisfaction, retail infrastructure, retail management, shopping malls, store atmosphere
Paper Submission Date : October 2, 2014 ; Paper sent back for Revision : February 5, 2015 ; Paper Acceptance Date : March 6 , 2015
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Anish Yousaf
Assistant Professor, School of Business, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab - 144 411.

Neelika Arora
Assistant Professor, Central University, Jammu – 180 006, J&K.
Anil Gupta
Assistant Professor, The Business School, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, J&K.