Indian Journal of Finance | Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management | Arthshastra: Indian Journal of Economics & Research |

   Volume 44 • Number 12 • December 2014

Indian Culture and its Reflection on Advertising : A Perceptual Study of Advertising Practitioners
Indian Journal of Marketing, 44(12), 7 – 18
India's diverse culture is reflected in the advertising released by top advertisers. This study looked at how advertisers and advertising agency personnel perceived the culture prevalent among Indian consumers, the cultural dimensions of Indian advertising, and its impact on the effectiveness of advertising campaigns. This is a qualitative study conducted amongst senior advertising practitioners from advertising agencies and advertisers. In-depth interviews were conducted to study how the depiction of different stimuli in advertising like celebrity endorsements, humor, language, clothing, religion, patriotism, festivity, and lifestyle influence the culture of consumers. Other aspects like romance, technology, family, friendship, and environment were also studied. Hofstede's dimensions of culture were used to gain insights on the subject from practitioners. The research identified five waves of change that are transforming the culture of Indian consumers and this is reflected in Indian advertising. These waves have been discussed in detail as waves that bring a change in consumer culture, for a better life, a change to succeed, a change in traditions, a change in the concept of globalization, and a change in the perceptions of value for money. The paper concluded with an assessment of the challenges that advertisers face in dealing with the diverse culture that is prevalent amongst Indian consumers to create effective advertising.
Keywords: culture, advertising strategy, traditions, change
Paper Submission Date : June 3, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : August 27, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : October 1, 2014
1 Bulmer, S., & Buchanan-Oliver, M. (2006). Advertising across cultures: Interpretations of visually complex advertising. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 28(1), 57 -71. DOI:10.1080/10641734.2006.10505191
2 Deleersnyder, B., Dekimpe, M. G., Steenkamp, J.- B. E. M., & Leeflang, P. S. H. (2009). The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles: An investigation across continents. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(5), 623-636. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.46.5.623
3 Guzman, F., & Paswan, A. K. (2009). Cultural brands from emerging markets: Brand image across host and home countries. Journal of International Marketing, 17(3), 71-86. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jimk.17.3.71
4 Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences. International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills, CA : Sage Publications.
5 Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. ( 2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (revised and expanded 2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
6 Hollis, N. (2009, May). Culture clash : Globalization does not imply homogenization. Millward Brown's POV. Retrieved from http://www.milwardbrown.com
7 Jafri, M.H. (2012). An empirical study of octapace culture and organizational commitment. International Journal of Retailing & Rural Business Perspectives, 1(2), 187-194.
8 Kelly, A., Lawlor, K., & O'Donohoe, S. (2005). The creative perspective. Journal of Marketing Management, 21 (5 - 6), 505-528.
9 Lam, D., Lee, A., & Mizerski, R. (2009). The effects of cultural values in word-of-mouth communication. Journal of International Marketing, 17 (3), 55-70. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jimk.17.3.55
10 Lehnert, K., Till, B.D., & Ospina, L.M. (2014). Advertising creativity : The role of divergence versus meaningfulness. Journal of Advertising, 43 (3), 274 - 285.
11 Mahapatra, S. (2013). Impact of TV ad message using emotional versus rational appeal on Indian consumers. International Journal of Business Insights and Transformation, 6 (1), 86-93.
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13 Mishra, M., & Mishra, B. B. (2011). A quantitative assessment of materialistic value and its relationship with consumer behavior in Indian culture. The IUP Journal of Marketing Management, 10 (2), 33-53.
14 Mooij, de M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model : Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29 (1), 85- 110. DOI: 10.2501/S026504870920104X
15 Okazaki, S., Mueller, B., & Taylor, C.R. (2010). Measuring soft-sell versus hard-sell advertising appeals. Journal of Advertising, 39 (2), 5 - 20.
16 Oxford Dictionaries (n.d.). Culture. Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/culture
17 Patel, N. (2012). The effect of global brands on the culture of Indian urban consumer. IJSR - International Journal of Scientific Research, 1(4), 94-96.
18 Pollay, R. W. (1986). The distorted mirror : Reflections on the unintended consequences of advertising. Journal of Marketing, 50 ( April), 18-36.
19 Singh, S. K., Srinivasan, V., Sista, S., & Parashar, M. (2008). Cross cultural conceptualizations: A case for multiple national cultures in India. IIMB Management Review, 20 (3), p. 249.
20 Subramanian, M.U. (2012). Achieving high involvement and satisfaction through octapace culture in IT companies. Zenith International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, 2(5), 131 - 138.
21 The cultural context. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.in/upm-data/42958_2_The_Cultural_Context.pdf
22 Venkatesh, V., Brown, S.A., & Bala, H. (2013). Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Guidelines for conducting mixed methods research in information systems. MIS Quarterly, 37(1), 21-54.
23 Virani, F. (2013, April 8). Towards an educated India. Generation Y ignore at your own risk. The Free Press Journal Knowledge, p. 4.
24 West, D.C., Kover, A.J., & Caruana, A. (2008). Practitioner and customer views of advertising creativity : Same concept, Different meaning ? Journal of Advertising, 37(4), 35 - 46. DOI : 10.2753/JOA0091-3367370403
Freda Swaminathan
Professor, FORE School of Management
“ Adhitam Kendra”, B-18 Qutub Institutional Area,
New Delhi – 110 016.
Ipshita Bansal
Professor & Dean
Faculty of Commerce and Management Studies
Bhagat Phoolsingh Womens' University, Khanpur Kalan (Sonepat)
Haryana-131 305 .
How Does Experience Impact Domestic Tourists’ Satisfaction? Testing the Mediating Role of Service Quality
Indian Journal of Marketing, 44(12), 19 -31

The aim of the present paper was to explore the impact of tourists' experience on their satisfaction levels and examine the mediating effect of service quality in this relationship with reference to Bangladeshi domestic tourists. The study utilized a review of literature to propose a conceptual model that posits that: Tourists' experience is positively related to their overall satisfaction when service quality mediates the relationship. The model was examined in an empirical study with data from a survey conducted among 280 domestic tourists by utilizing the convenience sampling procedure from selected tourist destinations in Bangladesh. The constructs were then analyzed by using exploratory factor analysis, and validation was done through the use of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The findings of the study suggest that experience plays a significant role in tourists' satisfaction, while service quality plays a strong mediating role. The findings from this research provide a meaningful source of information about domestic tourists' experience and their expectations from the service providers. This paper demonstrated how service quality mediates the relationship between tourists' experience and tourists' satisfaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever and only research that has been conducted on Bangladeshi domestic tourists' perception in testing their experience and satisfaction by considering service quality as a mediating role.

Keywords : experience, service quality, satisfaction, tourism, Bangladesh
Paper Submission Date : May 19, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : September 2, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : September 30, 2014

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Muhammad Sabbir Rahman
Assistant Professor and Head of Research, Faculty of Languages and Management, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, Selangor Darul Ehsan, PO Box:10, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
muhammadsabbir@iium.edu.my ; sabbiriiu@gmail.com
Madi Bin Abdullah
Associate Professor
Faculty of Business, Economics and Accounting
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Role of Gender in Influencing Consumers' Attitude Towards Online Advertising
Indian Journal of Marketing, 44(12), 32 -46
Internet revolution has led to the emergence of an e-generation era, where every aspect of life is taken online. So is the case with business, where the Internet has widened the horizon of promotion through advertising. Online advertising is a universe in itself, with different ways to present the promotional message of a company, each with a different level of effectiveness and impact on consumers. This necessitates the marketers to understand the attitude of consumers towards online advertisements in order to better target the advertisements to the right consumers in the right way. The paper attempted to fill the research gap in the area of online advertisements and thus explored the attitude of consumers towards online advertisements, the preference of content, attraction, and formats of online advertisements and the impact of online advertisements on consumers' purchase decisions. The results of the study revealed that there was no significant influence of gender on respondents' attitude towards online advertisements, and that respondents' preference of online advertisements reflects their price sensitivity and preference to animation.
Keywords : Internet, online advertising, attitude, online advertisement formats, gender
Paper Submission Date : June 9, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : September 9, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : October 2, 2014
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Meghna Verma
Assistant Professor
M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Management
Bangalore - 54.


Saranya R.
M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Management
Bangalore - 54.

Measuring Satisfaction of Mutual Fund Investors from the Customer Communication Dimension of the Marketing Mix
Indian Journal of Marketing, 44(12), 47 - 56
The concept of 'customer satisfaction' is always seen as a widely accepted area of research amongst the academicians. Studies on customer satisfaction have showed that customer satisfaction is strongly dependent on the perceived experience and prior expectation of the customers. The gap between the level of expectations and the level of experience act as an indicator of the success or the future prospects of a product. A product is expected to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customers. Similarly, mutual funds are expected to fulfil the investment needs of the investors. This paper assessed the retail investors' level of experience and level of expectations from mutual fund investments in terms of the 'customer communication dimension' of the marketing mix. The study was conducted in Guwahati with a sample size of 405 respondents. The findings of the study showed that a large chunk of the investors were dissatisfied with mutual fund investments, and a significant gap was observed between the level of expectations and the level of experience (from the viewpoint of customer communication dimension of the marketing mix).
Keywords: customer satisfaction, customer expectations, customer experience, mutual funds, investment
Paper Submission Date: February 20, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : April 3, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : May 5, 2014
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Amalesh Bhowal
Department of Commerce
Assam University
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Tarak Paul
Assistant Professor
Royal School of Business
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