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Indian Journal of Finance | Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management | Arthshastra: Indian Journal of Economics & Research |
 

   Volume 45 • Number 6 • June 2015

 
Social Marketing - Awareness and Satisfaction Levels of Government Aided Health Insurance Project in Rural Tamil Nadu
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 7 - 20
In developing countries, one of the contexts of social marketing is to foster the use of various health-related products and services independent of many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and donors from developed countries, who have largely funded and devised social marketing activities in these countries. These activities have also been taken up by local organizations - state owned, state supported, and private. In India, there is a growing demand for quality medical care due to the poor quality of state owned hospitals, increase in lifestyle diseases, increasing private health care costs, and cost of medicines. This makes health insurance a necessity today more than a luxury. To mitigate the problem of quality health care at affordable costs, there are state interventions, the notable ones being Yeshasvini of Karnataka, Arogyasri of Andhra Pradesh, and Chief Minister's Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme of Tamil Nadu. The Chief Minister's Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme is one of the innovative health insurance schemes introduced by the Tamil Nadu Government for below poverty line (BPL) families, covering a population of 14 million with an annual income of INR 72000 (USD 1400 ; 1 USD = 50 INR in 2009 ) or less. The scheme has been implemented through 663 hospitals (20 public sector hospitals and 643 private hospitals). This scheme assures treatment and saves the lives of people from 51 types of diseases. This study aimed at studying the public-private partnership in health care with specific reference to the Chief Minister's Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme of the Tamil Nadu government in terms of awareness, satisfaction, and impact through qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The study indicated that the awareness of the respondents about this scheme was poor, but was significantly better amongst those who had availed this scheme. The satisfaction levels measured among the respondents, who had used this scheme at least once, clearly indicated that the people were satisfied with the overall implementation of the scheme, the services/facilities provided by the hospitals, and the treatment rendered by them.
Keywords: social marketing, Chief Minister's Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme, government aided health insurance, private public partnership (PPP) ,awareness, satisfaction
Paper Submission Date : August 11, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : January 8, 2015 ; Paper Acceptance Date : February 23, 2015
References
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2 Bansak, C., & Raphael, S. (2008). The state's children's health insurance program and job mobility: Identifying job lock among working parents in near poor households. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 61 (4), 564- 579.
3 Bloom, G., Kanjilal, B., Peters, D. H. (2008). Regulating health care markets in China and India. Health Affairs, 27 (4), 952- 963. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.27.4.952
4 Burns, A. C., & Bush, R. F. (2009). Marketing research (5th. ed., pp. 200-231). New Delhi : Pearson Education.
5 Cannon, M. F. (2009). Regulation in China, India, and the United States. Health Affairs, 28 (1), 295-296. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.1.295-a
6 Conover, C. J. (2009). China and India: Good news and bad news. Health Affairs, 28 (1), 296-297. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.1.296
7 Devadasan, N., Criel, B., Van Damme, W., Manoharan, S., Sarma, P. S., & Van der Stuyft, P. (2010). Community health insurance in Gudalur, India, increases access to hospital care. Health Policy & Planning, 25 (2), 145-154. DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czp044
8 Donovan, R., & Henley, N. (2003). Social marketing: Principles and practice. Melbourne : IP Communications.
9 Gengler, A. (2010). Solving your toughest health care challenges. Money, 39 (5), 90-95.
10 Greenbaum, T. I. (1988 ). The practical handbook and guide in focus group research. Lexington, M A : D C Heath.
11 Harrington, S. E. (2010). The health insurance reform debate. Journal of Risk & Insurance, 77(1), 5-38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6975.2009.01345.x
12 Harvey, P. (1999). Let every child be wanted: How social marketing is revolutionizing contraceptive use around the world. Westport, CT : Auburn House.
13 Joseph, C.S., & Rajagopal, N. (2011). Performance evaluation of 'Kalaignar Health Insurance Scheme' for life saving treatment: A study among the beneficiaries of Madurai district. Journal of Contemporary Research in Management, 6 (4), 1-17.
14 Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2008). Social marketing: Influencing behaviors for good (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications.
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16 Kuruvilla, S. & Lui, M. (2007). Health security for the rural poor? A case study of a health insurance scheme for rural farmers and peasants in India. International Social Security Review, 60 (4), 3-21.
17 Lefebvre, R. C. ( 2011). An integrative model for social marketing. Journal of Social Marketing, 1 (1), 54-72. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20426761111104437
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20 Meadley, J., Pollard, R., & Wheeler, M. (2003). Review of DFID approach to social marketing. Annex 2: Overview of social marketing. DFID Health Systems Resource Centre. Retrieved from http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Review-of-DFIDs-approach-to-social-marketing.pdf
21 Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme: Andhra Pradesh. (n.d.). Details of Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme. Retrieved from http://www.archive.india.gov.in/citizen/health/viewscheme.php?schemeid=1800
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23 Regnier, P., Andrews, M., & Gengler, A. (2010). Health care reform. Money, 39 (4), 70-80.
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27 United Nations Population Fund. (2002). Strategic guidance on HIV prevention. New York : UNFPA, New York.
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30 Walsh, D.C., Rudd, R.E., Moeykens, B.A., & Moloney, T.W. (1993). Social marketing for public health. Health Affairs, 12 (2), 104 - 119.
31 Yellaiah, J. (2013). Health insurance in India: Rajiv Aarogyasri Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh . IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science , 8(1) , 7-14.
32 Yeshaswini Co-Operative Farmers Health Care Scheme. (n.d.). Mission. Retrieved from http://www.yeshasvini.kar.nic.in
 
T. N. Swaminathan
Professor - Marketing
Great Lakes Institute of Management
NPL, Devi Building, 111, L. B. Road
Thiruvanmiyur
Chennai-600 041.
tnswami@greatlakes.edu.in
P. K. Viswanathan
Professor - Operations
Great Lakes Institute of Management
NPL, Devi Building, 111, L. B. Road
Thiruvanmiyur
Chennai-600 041.
viswanathan.pk@greatlakes.edu.in
 
 
 
Buying Behavior of Scheduled Drugs as OTC Drugs: An Empirical Investigation
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 21 - 36
Over a period of time, there has been a steady growth of “self - medication” due to various factors. This has happened in spite of the fact that the perils of this unsupervised and unregulated “self medication” are far and wide. Medicines in India are regulated by CDSCO -Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Drugs are classified under the following schedules :

1. Schedule X drugs – consists of narcotics,
2. Schedule H and L – consists of injectables, antibiotics, and antibacterial,
3. Schedule C and C1 – biological products-like serums and vaccines.

Schedule H is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an Appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules introduced in 1945. It is revised from time to time based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization. However, enforcement of Schedule H laws in India is lax, compared to the more restrictive Schedule X, for which a documentation trail has to be mandatorily maintained. The present study looked into the prevalence of buying of some of the schedule H and L drugs without a prescription (self - medication). It throws light on how and why the line of distinction between “over the counter” OTC drugs and schedule H drugs is not observed in a strict manner.

Keywords: self - medication, schedule H drugs, regulations

Paper Submission Date : August 16, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : February 5, 2015 ; Paper Acceptance Date : March 24, 2015
References
1 Ahmad, A., Patel, I., Mohanta, G.P., & Balkrishnan, R. (2014). Evaluation of self medication practices in rural area of town Sahaswan at Northern India. Annals of Medical & Health Science Research, 4 (2), S73 - S78. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F2141-9248.138012
2 Arora, U., & Taneja, G. (2006). An investigation of physicians' behaviour towards marketing of pharmaceutical products. Indian Journal of Marketing, 36 (11), 10-13.
3 Baines, P., Fill, C., & Page, K. (2013). Marketing (Asian ed., pp. 69 - 88). New Delhi: OUP.
4 Burlakanti, K., & Srinivas, R. V. (2013). The emergence of retailing of generic medicines : An awareness study at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Marketing, 43 (12), 12-23.
5 Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2011). Business research methods (9th ed., pp. 242 - 269). New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.
6 Government of India. (n.d.). The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. Retrieved from http://cdsco.nic.in/html/ Drugs&CosmeticAct.pdf
7 Greenhalgh, T. (1987). Drug prescription and self-medication in India: An exploratory survey. Social Science & Medicine, 25 (3), 307-318.
8 Indian Pharmaceutical Association. (n.d.). Regulations & Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.ipapharma.org/regulations.aspx
9 Jain, P., Sachan, A., Singla, R. K., & Agrawal, P. (2012). Statistical study on self medication pattern in Haryana, India. Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1), 21-35.
10 Kasliwal, N., & Bansal, I. (2013). Influence of pharmaceutical promotional tools on doctors' prescribing behaviour. Indian Journal of Marketing, 43 (8), 23-34.
11 Kotler, P., Keller, K.L., Koshy, A., & Jha, M. (2013). Marketing management: A South Asian perspective (14th ed., pp. 132-149). New Delhi: Pearson.
12 Kumar, V., Mangal, A., Yadav, G., Raut, D., & Singh, S. (2015). Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Medical Journal of DY Patil University, 8 (1), 16-20.
13 Lal, V., Goswami, A., & Anand, K. (2007). Self-medication among residents of urban resettlement colony, New Delhi. Indian Journal of Public Health, 51 (4), 249- 251.
14 Organization of Pharmaceutical Producers of India (2012). OPPI code of pharmaceutical practices. Retrieved from http://www.ifpma.org/fileadmin/content/About%20us/2%20Members/Associations/Code-India/OPPI_Code_of_Pharmaceutical_Practices__-_2012.pdf
15 Selvaraj, K., Kumar, S. G., & Ramalingam, A. (2014). Prevalence of self-medication practices and its associated factors in Urban Puducherry, India. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 5(1), 32-36. DOI: 10.4103/2229-3485.124569
16 Sharma, R., Verma, U., Sharma, C. L., & Kapoor, B. (2005). Self medication among urban population of Jammu city. Indian Journal Pharmacology, 37 (1), 40-43. DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.13856
17 The Drugs & Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act, 1954. (1954, April 30). Retrieved from http://www.rfhha.org/images/pdf/Hospital_Laws/Drugs_magic_remedies_%28%20advertisement%29_act.pdf
18 World Health Organization. (n.d.). Preamble to the constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946. Signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on April 7, 1948. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html
19 World Health Organization. (1995). Contribution to updating the WHO Guideline for Developing National Drug Policies. Report of a WHO Expert committee meeting, 19-23 June 1995. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s16221e/s16221e.pdf
20 World Self Medication Industry (WSMI) (n.d. a). The story of self-care and self-medication. 40 years of progress, 1970-2010. Retrieved from http://www.wsmi.org/wp-content/data/pdf/storyofselfcare_brochure.pdf
21 World Self Medication Industry (WSMI) (n.d. b). What is self-medication? Retrieved from http://www.wsmi.org/about-self-care-and-self-medication/what-is-self-medication/
M. A. Sanjeev
Assistant Professor
Jaypee Business School
JIIT University
A-10, Sector - 62, Noida - 201 307.
ma.sanjeev@jaypeebusinessschool.com

 

Mayank Taneja
Senior Analyst
The Smart Cube
Level 5, Tower B, Windsor IT Park
A1, Sector-125, Noida - 201 301.
mayanktaneja@hotmail.com
 

Arun Sharma
Regional Medical Advisor
Astra Zeneca - North India
Block N1, 12th Floor
Manyata Embassy Business Park Rachenahalli
Outer Ring Road
Bangalore - 560 045.
arun_sh2000@yahoo.com
 
 
 
Has Modern Retailing in India Influenced the Consumption Expenditure Behavior of Urban Socioeconomic Classes?
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 37-52
The retail industry of India is estimated to be valued at $470 billion. The modern trade retail occupies 8% share of the business. It was projected to reach US $ 574 billion by 2015. The organized retail market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 18.8%, and increase its expansion to 20% of the retail share by 2020. The global retailers are finding India to be an attractive potential destination for their businesses. The expansion of organized retail in different formats has created ample opportunities and has brought a sea change in consumer buying behavior among the various socioeconomic classes in urban India. Modern retail focuses on various non price aspects of human preferences towards consumption behavior like- dietary diversity, convenience, quality and brand, which has implications for food demand. Again, the growing supply chain efficiencies that have reduced real food prices over time have facilitated in boosting consumer demand by relatively expanding the budget line. India, unlike any other nation, has diversity in terms of geographical spread and cultural aspects. The shift of retail towards the organized format has not affected consumption behavior in every sector uniformly. This paper focused upon identifying the impact of organized retail outlets on consumption behavior towards wet food, grocery, and apparel. The paper attempted to explore the organized retail industry and evaluated the extent of its impact on changing consumption expenditure in urban India based on a data set of 850 sample respondents spread across different places of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane, and Kalyan from different socioeconomic classes.
Keywords :  modern retail, global, consumption behavior, urban, socioeconomic classes, SEC system
Paper Submission Date : December 23, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : January 19, 2015 ; Paper Acceptance Date : May 7, 2015
References
1 A.T. Kearney. (2012). Global retail expansion : Keeps on moving. Retrieved from http://www.atkearney.in/documents/10192/302703/Global+Retail+Expansion+Keeps+On+Moving.pdf/4799f4e6-b20b-4605-9aa8-3ef451098f8a
2 Ablett, J. et al. (2007, May). The 'Bird of Gold' : The rise of India's consumer market. McKinsey Global Institute Report. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/asia-pacific/the_bird_of_gold
3 Bansil, P.C. (1999). Demand for Food grains by 2020 A.D. New Delhi : Observer Researcher Foundation.
4 Chatterjee, S., Rae, A., Ray, R. (2006). Food Consumption in contemporary India, How do Australia & New Zealand fit in? (Working Paper 2/60). New Zealand : Centre for Applied Economic and Policy Studies, Massey University.
5 Chattopadhyay, A. (2013). Consumer shopping behaviour in the new era of retailing : An empirical study on food and grocery and apparel purchase in East India. Indian Journal of Marketing, 43 (12), 47-55.
6 Datamonitor. (n.d.). Datamonitor's research store : Country insights. Retrieved from http://www.datamonitor.com/store/ 
7 Deloitte. (2013, January). Indian retail market : Opening more doors. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/7098395/Indian_Retail_Market_Opening_more_doors
8 Farhangmehr, M., Marques, S., & Silva, J. (2000). Consumer and retailer perceptions of hypermarkets and traditional retail stores in Portugal. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 7 (4), 197-206. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6989(00)00019-9
9 India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF). (2011). India - Economy and trends. Retrieved from http://www.ibef.org/download/India-Economy-and-Trends%28Oct-2011%29-211011.pdf
10 Jones, M. A., Reynolds, K. E., Weun, S., & Beatty, S.E. (2003). The product-specific nature of impulse buying tendency. Journal of Business Research, 56 (7), 505-511.
11 KPMG. (2009). Indian retail : Time to change lanes. Retrieved from https://www.kpmg.com/CN/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/indian-retail-O-0904.pdf
12 Kumar, P., & Kumar, P. (2003). Demand supply and trade perspective of vegetables and fruits in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing, 17 (3), 121-130.
13 Kumar, P., & Mathur, V.C. (1996). Structural changes in the demand for food in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 51 (4), 664 - 673.
14 Meenakshi, J.V. (1996, December 14). How important are changes in taste? A state-level analysis of demand. Economic and Political Weekly, 31 (50), 32- 65.
15 Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. (2008). NSS 64th Round- Education in India- 2007-08, participation and expenditure. Report No 532(64/25/2/1). New Delhi : Government of India.
16 Minten, B., Reardon, T., & Sutradhar, R. (2010). Food prices and modern retail : The case of Delhi. World Development, 38 (12), 1775 - 1787.
17 Murty, K. N. (2000). Changes in taste and demand pattern for cereals: Implication for food security in semi-arid tropical India. Agricultural Economic Research Review, 13 (1), 25-51.
18 National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). (1996). Key results on household consumer expenditure in 1993-94, 50th round. Report No. 401. New Delhi: Department of Statistics, Government of India.
19 PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2012). The Indian kaleidoscope : Emerging trends in retail. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.in/en_IN/in/assets/pdfs/industries/retail-and-consumer/retail-report-300812.pdf
20 Radhakrishna, R., & Ravi, C. (1992). Effect of growth, relative price and preferences on food and nutrition. Indian Economic Review, 27 (2), 303- 323.
21 Rao, C.H.H. (2000, January 22). Declining demand for foodgrains in rural India. Economic and Political Weekly, 35 (4), 21-28.
22 Rao, K.S. C., & Dhar, B. (2004). India's FDI inflows. Trends & concepts (Working Paper No 2011/01). New Delhi : Institute for Studies in Industrial Development.
23 Sachdeva, J. K. (2008). Study of consumers' perception about malls and traditional retail outlets. Journal of Global Economy, 4 (4), 259- 275.
24 Sinha, P. K., & Uniyal, D. P. (2005). Segmenting shoppers on behavior. International Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 12 (1), 35 - 48.
25 Sinha, P. K., Gokhale, S., & Thomas, S. (2012). Development of modern retailing in India: It's impacts on distribution and procurement networks and changing consumption pattern (W. P. No. 2012-12-04). Ahmedabad : Indian Institute of Management.
26 Tandon, S., Landes, M. R., & Woolverton, A. (2011). The expansion of modern grocery retailing and trade in developing countries (Economic Research Report No 122). USA : United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/118890/err122.pdf
27 Tata Consultancy Services. (2013). Indian retail operations benchmarking & excellence survey 2013 : A RAI - TCS study. Retrieved from http://www.tcs.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/White%20Papers/Consulting-Whitepaper-Indian-Retail-Operations-Benchmarking-Excellence-Survey-0113-1.pdf
28 The Market Research Society of India. (2011). Socio - economic classification - (2011). The New SEC System. Retrieved from http://mruc.net/sites/default/files/NEW%20SEC%20System.pdf
29 Vishvas, R. J., & Valleti, M. (2013). Conceptual paper proposing the 'Vishvas - Valleti Consumer Empowerment Model'. Indian Journal of Marketing, 44 (1), 5-21.
Debjani Banerjee
Assistant Professor (Selection Grade)
VES Institute of Management Studies & Research
Chembur, Mumbai - 400 074.
dcdebjani2000@gmail.com

Shradha Shivani
Professor
Department of Management
Birla Institute of Technology (BIT), Mesra
Ranchi, Jharkhand - 835 215.
shraddhashivani@bitmesra.ac.in
 

 
 
The Quality of Services and Their Impact on Customer Satisfaction in the Telecom Sector with Reference to Mobile Service Providers
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 53 - 62
The research is based on the quality of services that are being offered by various mobile service providers and the level of satisfaction that the customers experience. The government launched the mobile phone services and opened it for the private operators 10 years back. With this move of the government, many big and small companies ventured into the business. However, as we move on today, after 10 years, only half of the companies are surviving in the industry. The rate of addition of new subscribers is equalized or balanced by the churning of the customers. According to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), mobile telephony service providers have failed to meet the set customer satisfaction benchmarks. In an attempt to reduce the churn rate problem, companies constantly try to come up with new ideas and plans to retain their original customers and attract new customers. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of services provided by basic and cellular mobile service providers for assessing the customers' perceptions of the services. The aim of this research was to measure the overall satisfaction of the customers with regard to network availability, billing problems, customer care services, usage, etc.
Keywords:  service, quality, customer care, telecom, mobile service providers
Paper Submission Date : February 13, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : September 17, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : November 22, 2014
References
1 Caruana, A. (2002). Service loyalty: The effects of service quality and the mediating role of customer satisfaction. European Journal of Marketing, 36 (7/8), 811- 828. DOI: 10.1108/03090560210430818
2 Edward, M., & Sahadev, S. (2011). Role of switching costs in the service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction and customer retention linkage. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 23 (3), 327 - 345. DOI: 10.1108/13555851111143240
3 Evanschitzky, H., Sharma, A., & Prykop, C. (2012). The role of the sales employee in securing customer satisfaction. European Journal of Marketing, 46 (3/4), 489 - 508. DOI: 10.1108/03090561211202576
4 Kang, B.S., Cho, C.H., & Baek, J.D. (2007). The effects of service quality on customer satisfaction in case of dissatisfied customers. Asian Journal on Quality, 8 (1), 27 - 39. DOI: 10.1108/15982688200700003
5 Pollack, B.L. (2008). The nature of the service quality and satisfaction relationship: Empirical evidence for the existence of satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Managing Service Quality, 18 (6), 537 - 558. DOI: 10.1108/09604520810920059
6 Rahman, Z., (2004). Developing customer oriented service: A case study. Managing Service Quality, 14 (5), 426 - 435. DOI:10.1108/09604520410558029
7 Robledo, M.A. (2001). Measuring and managing service quality: Integrating customer expectations. Managing Service Quality, 11(1), 22 - 31. DOI: 10.1108/09604520110379472
8 Santouridis, I., & Trivellas, P. (2010). Investigating the impact of service quality and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in mobile telephony in Greece. The TQM Journal, 22 (3), 330 - 343. DOI: 10.1108/17542731011035550
9 Sureshchandar, G.S., Rajendran, C., & Anantharaman, R.N. (2002). The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction : A factor specific approach. Journal of Services Marketing, 16 (4), 363 - 379. DOI: 10.1108/08876040210433248    
 
Puja Walia Mann
Dean
Department of Management
Samalkha Group of Institutions
Samalkha, Panipat - 132 102, Haryana.
pujawaliamann@gmail.com
 
Manish Jha
Senior Assistant Professor
Department of Management
Fairfield Institute of Management & Technology
Kapashera, New Delhi.
fimt.manish@gmail.com