Indian Journal of Finance | Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management | Arthshastra: Indian Journal of Economics & Research |

   Volume 45 • Number 1 • January 2015

Materialism and Consumer Behavior : Differences in Types of Materialism Among Different Cultures
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(1), 9 - 18
This research paper sought to ascertain the importance of values among different groups of individuals, differentiated by gender, age, and ethnicity. The paper contributes to understanding materialism among different cultures. It provides a broader perspective on how those living in one very strong materialistic culture are more vs. less materialistic. A social influence perspective is applied. The paper also provided a broader perspective on materialism, by considering all cultures in a metropolitan area that is composed of a melting pot of cultures. While one research survey mechanism was used to identify a variety of elements that are related to individual materialism, this research incorporated not only one reliable research measure tool from the past, but also a more recently developed and validated research measure. Findings suggest that attitudes toward materialism directly affect consumer behavior and thus, marketing strategy.
Keywords: Materialism, different cultures, consumer behavior, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Fisher's LSD test
Paper Submission Date : August 4, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : September 12, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : October 2, 2014
1 Fournier, S., & Richins, M. L. (1991). Some theoretical and popular notions concerning materialism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6(6), 403-414.
2 Gregoire, C. (2014). The psychology of materialism, and why it's making you unhappy. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/12/15/psychology-materialism_n_4425982.html
3 Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Sheldon, K. M. (2004). Materialistic values: Their causes and consequences. In T. Kasser, & A. D. Kanner (Eds.), Psychology and consumer culture (pp. 11-28). Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association.
4 Moore, K., Berger, P. D., & Weinberg, B. D. (2013). Issues for exploration of differing values among sub-groups of young-adult consumers. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(5), 35-39.
5 Richins, M. L., & Dawson, S. (1992). A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (3), 303-316. DOI : http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1086/209304
6 Trinh, V. D., & Phau, I. (2012). A new set of measurements for the materialism scale. 2012 ANZMAC Annual Conference Proceedings, University of South Australia, Australia.
7 Veblen, T. (1899). The theory of the leisure class: An economic study of institutions. MacMillian Press: New York.
Kelvyn A. Moore
Visiting Assistant Professor of Marketing
Bentley University
175 Forest Street, Waltham, MA 02452, USA.

Paul D. Berger
Visiting Scholar and Professor of Marketing and
Director of the Master of Science in Marketing Analytics Program
Bentley University
175 Forest Street, Waltham, MA 02452, USA.
Channel Distribution Performance in Cold Chain Management: A Comparative Scenario Between Two States of India
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(1), 19 - 35

This paper attempted to study the performance of channel distribution in cold storage operations and inter-alia issues in an attempt to give new insights into cold storage operations. An exploratory study was carried out by interviewing, interacting, and sharing of experiences by as many as 64 cold storage operators spanning from various districts of Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The comparison of operations of cold storage in these two states brought forth that channel distribution plays an important role in maintaining and delivery of perishable products from cold storage to retail markets. The study is expected to assist in creating insights on issues relevant to the involvement of channel intermediaries in cold storage operations.

Keywords: Cold storage units, direct channel, indirect channel, intermediaries' performance, supply chain management
Paper Submission Date: July 13, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision: October 2, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : December 2, 2014

1 A.T. Kearney. (2005). China cold chain is heating up. Retrieved from http://www.atkearney.com/documents/10192/5c547263-b227-431b-b96e-3c69a3a7307f
2 Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2000). Marketing: An introduction (5th edition, pp. 365 - 366). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Prentice Hall.
3 Baldiwala, Q. (2001). Developing a global supply chain. Logistics Spectrum, 35 (4), 25-29.
4 Bogataj, M., Bogataj, L., & Vodopivec, R. (2005). Stability of perishable goods in cold logistic chains. International Journal of Production Economics, Volumes 93 - 94, 345-356. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2004.06.032
5 Brewer, A. M., & Hensher, D. A. (2001). Identifying the overarching logistics strategy of business processes: An exploratory analysis. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management, 4 (1), 1- 41. DOI: 10.1080/13675560110037717
6 C H Robinson Worldwide /Iowa State University. (2001). Temperature controlled logistics report 2001-2000 (pp. 22 -47). C H Robinson Worldwide, Iowa State University, Eden Prairie, IA.
7 China Bio/Pharmaceutical and Clinical Supply Chain Convention. (2013). Article on cold supply chain management, China. Retrieved from http://www.clinicaltrialssupply.com/Event.aspx?id=790390
8 Commoditywise Distribution of Cold Storage as on 31.12.2009. (2009). Retrieved from http://agmarknet.nic.in/commcold3112009.htm
9 Comprehensive note on creation and management of cold chain infrastructure for agriculture & allied sectors (n.d.). Retrieved from http://nccd.gov.in/pdf/ridf.pdf
10 Da Silva, C. A., & Filho, S. M. D. (2007). Guidelines for rapid appraisals of agri - food chain performance in developing countries. Agricultural management, marketing and finance occasional paper. FAO, Rome. Retrieved from www.fao.org/AG/agS/publications/docs/AGSF_OccassionalPapers/agsfop20.pdf
11 Directorate of Marketing and Inspection. (2009). Retrieved from http://agmarknet.nic.in
12 Dutta, P.K. (2011). Agricultural rural marketing in India. Indian Journal of Marketing, 41 (7), 9-19.
13 Executive summary of Dr. Saumitra Chaudhuri Committee report for encouraging investment in supply chains including provision for cold storages for efficient distribution of farm products. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nccd.gov.in/PDF/DrSaumitraChoudhuriCommitteereport1.pdf
14 Gilmour, B., & Cheng, G. (2004). Enabling China's Agri-Food Sector: Responding to Challenges with foresight, infrastructure, institutional and enterprise reform. Pacific Food System Outlook. Retrieved from http://www.pecc.org/resources/infrastructure-1/368-enabling-chinas-agri-food-sector-responding-to-challenges/file
15 Grover, D.K., Singh, J.M., Singh, J., & Kumar, S. (2014). Impact of emerging agribusiness establishments on potato marketing in Punjab. Indian Journal of Marketing, 44 (6), 37-50.
16 Gyesley, S. W. (1991). Total systems approach to predict shelf life of packaged foods. ASTM STP, pp. 46-50.
17 Henstra, D., & Woxenius, J. (1999). Intermodal transport in Europe. Report within the EU-project, TRILOG Europe, TNO Inro, Delft.
18 India's logistics industry. (2011, May 13). Retrieved from http://www.taiwantrade.com.tw/MAIN/en_front/searchserv.do?setLangCode=en&method=listNewsDetail&information_id=33846&locale=2
19 Joshi, R., Banwet, D. K., & Shankar, R. (2010). Consumer link in cold chain: Indian scenario. Food Control, 21 (8), 1137-1142. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.01.008
20 Khan, A. U. (2005, September). The domestic food market: Is India ready for food processing. In Conference on SPS towards Global Competitiveness in the Food Processing Sector (Vol. 5). Retrieved from http://www.idfresearch.org/pdf/dommarket.pdf
21 Lambert, D. M., & Cooper, M. C. (2000). Issues in supply chain management. Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (1), 65-83. DOI: 10.1016/S0019-8501(99)00113-3
22 Lan, W. (2008, October). A research on related questions of Chinese food cold chain development. In Management of e-Commerce and e-Government, 2008, ICMECG'08. (pp. 18-21). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ICMECG.2008.76
23 Likar, K., & Jevšnik, M. (2006). Cold chain maintaining in food trade. Food Control, 17 (2), 108-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.09.009
24 McKinnon, A.C. (1989). The growth of road freight in the UK. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Materials Management, 19 (4), 3-13. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000000312
25 McLean, D. (2009). Cold chain shipping: Protecting temperature sensitive products. Retrieved from http://www.pda.org/Chapters/North-America/Metro/Presentations/Cold-Chain-Shipping--Protecting-Temperature-Sensitive-Products-Diane-McLean-102-MB.aspx
26 Melo, M. T., Nickel, S., & Saldanha-da-Gama, F. (2009). Facility location and supply chain management : A review. European Journal of Operational Research, 196 (2), 401-412. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2008.05.007
27 Montanari, R. (2008). Cold chain tracking: A managerial perspective. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19 (8), 425-431. DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2008.03.009
28 National Centre for Cold Chain Development. (2012). Comprehensive note on creation and management of cold chain infrastructure for agriculture & allied sectors. Retrieved from http://nccd.gov.in/PDF/ComprehensiveNote.pdf
29 National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC). (2011). Methodology for measuring the logistics cost for major manufacturing exports and assessing its impact on their competitiveness. Retrieved from http://nmcc.nic.in/pdf/NMCC_FinalReport_June2011.pdf
30 National Stock Exchange and Directorate of Marketing and Inspection of India. (2012). Retrieved from http://nseindia.com and http://agmarknet.nic.in
31 PUF. (2013). PUF application in cold storages. Retrieved from http://www.acme.in/defence/puf-applications.html
32 Rangasamy, N. (2013). Performance of agri-warehousing in Maharashtra and market potential for negotiable warehouse receipts finance in India. Indian Journal of Marketing, 43(12), 5-11.
33 Rathore, J. (2013). Cold chain management for perishable food: Issues and scope for India. The IUP Journal of Supply Chain Management, 10 (1), 7-14.
34 Report of Dr. Saumitra Chaudhuri Committee. Action to be taken by various departments/organisations. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nccd.gov.in/PDF/DrSaumitraChoudhuriCommitteereport2.pdf
35 Ruijgrok, C. E. E. S. (2001). European transport: Insights and challenges. In A.M. Brewer, K. J. Button, & D. A. Hensher (Eds.), Handbook of logistics and supply chain management (pp. 29-46). Amsterdam : Elsevier.
36 Samant, Y., Lanjewar, H., Parker, D., Block, L., Tomar, G. S., & Stein, B. (2007). Evaluation of the cold-chain for oral polio vaccine in a rural district of India. Public Health Reports, 122(1), 112 - 121.
37 Saravanan, S. (2012). Problem of vegetable producing farmers in Erode, Coimbatore and Tiruppur districts of Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Marketing, 42(10), 22-30.
38 Sterling Solutions. (2013). Cold chain management. Retrieved from http://www.sterlingsolutions.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13&Itemid=71
39 Subin, R. (2011). Country: India's cold chain industry. Retrieved from https://www.iaccindia.com/userfiles/files/India's%20Cold%20Chain%20Industry.pdf
40 Surange, A. (2013). Cold chain development in India - Modernization of the infrastructure of cold storage of perishables. Retrieved from http://acrconsultants.net/pdf/Cold%20chain%20development%20in%20India%20for%20Colombia%20R3.pdf
41 Van Donselaar, K., van Woensel, T., Broekmeulen, R. A. C. M., & Fransoo, J. (2006). Inventory control of perishables in supermarkets. International Journal of Production Economics, 104 (2), 462-472. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2004.10.019
42 Viswanadham, N. (Ed.) (2006). Can India be the food basket for the world? In Achieving rural & global supply chain excellence : The Indian Way (pp.3-13). Retrieved from http://lcm.csa.iisc.ernet.in/nv/Mypublications/Books/GLAMSBook.pdf#page=13
43 Way2Wealth. (2008, April 15). Indian processed food industry: Opportunities galore. Retrieved from http://way2wealth.com/reports/RR150420084.PDF
44 Xia, Z. Y. (2007). Study of countermeasures relating to developing food cold chain logistics. Logistics Sci-Tech, 16 (7), 137 - 139.
45 Yu, M., & Nagurney, A. (2013). Competitive food supply chain networks with application to fresh produce. European Journal of Operational Research, 224 (2), 273-282. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2012.07.033
Shantanu Saha
Junior Research Fellow
Department of Management Studies
Indian School of Mines
Dhanbad- 826 004, Jharkhand.
K. Mukherjee
Indian Institute of Management Kashipur
Kashipur, Uttarakhand- 244 713.

B. Chandra
Assistant Professor
Department of Management Studies
Indian School of Mines
Dhanbad- 826 004, Jharkhand.
Consumers' Motivation for Participating in Cause Related Marketing : An Exploratory Study
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(1), 36 - 48
The paper investigated the consumers' perceptions of cause marketing efforts of companies by examining the real-life experiences of the customers. Cause marketing initiatives are increasingly becoming a prominent aspect of the marketing mix; a lot of companies are jumping onto the bandwagon, primarily to distinguish themselves in the homogeneous markets. However, it is only a recent phenomenon that the companies are beginning to appreciate how corporate giving can be adopted as an effective marketing strategy. The paper, by using a qualitative approach, attempted to understand the meaning of CRM from the consumers' perspective: As to what influences the decision making on the part of the consumers? It identified various motivational factors that drive the behavior of consumers exposed to a CRM initiative. The paper provides valuable insights to academicians and practitioners as to how to communicate and what to emphasize while designing cause marketing communication initiatives.
Keywords: cause marketing, consumer behavior, qualitative approach, marketing strategy, CRM
Paper Submission Date: June 9, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : September 30, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : November 3, 2014
1 Andreasen, A. R. (1996). Profits for non-profits: Find a corporate partner. Harvard Business Review, 74 (6), 47-59.
2 Barone, M. J., Miyazaki, A. D., Taylor, K. A. (2000). The influence of cause - related marketing on consumer choice: Does one good turn deserve another? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (2) , 248-262. DOI: 10.1177/0092070300282006
3 Brown, T.J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of Marketing, 61 (1), 68-84.
4 Cause Marketing Forum (n.d.). IEG sponsorship report. Retrieved from http://www.causemarketingforum.com/site/c.bkLUKcOTLkK4E/b.6449067/k.71C8/IEG_Sponsorship_Report.htm
5 Cone, C. L., Feldman, M.A., & DaSilva, A. T. (2003). Causes and effects. Harvard Business Review, 81, 95-102.
6 Cui, Y., Trent, E. S., Sullivan, P. M., & Matiru, G. N. (2003). Cause related marketing: How generation Y responds. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 31 (6), 310-320. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09590550310476012
7 Dahl, D., & Lavack, A. (1995). Cause related marketing: Impact of size of corporate donations and the size of cause related promotions on consumer buying behavior and the perceptions (pp. 477 - 482). American Marketing Association Winter Education Conference.
8 Drumwright, M. E. (1996). Company advertising with a social dimension: The role of noneconomic criteria. Journal of Marketing, 60 (4), 71- 87.
9 Ellen, P., Mohr, L. A., & Webb, D. J. (1997). Can retailers benefit from cause marketing? Working Paper, Georgia University, Atlanta, GA.
10 Ellen, P. S., Mohr, L. A., & Webb, D. J. (2000). Charitable programs and the retailers : Do they mix? Journal of Retailing, 76(3), 393-406.
11 Endacott, R. W. J. (2004). Consumers and CRM: A national and global perspective. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21 (3), 183-189. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07363760410534731
12 Gadhavi, D. D., Shukla, Y.S., & Patel, J. D. (2014). Moderating role of cause related marketing campaign between attitude towards products and purchase intention: An experimental analysis. Indian Journal of Marketing, 44 (3), 35 - 42.
13 Lafferty, B. A. (1996). Cause related marketing: Does the cause make the difference in consumers attitude and purchase intention towards a product? Working Paper, Department of Marketing, Florida State University, Florida, USA.
14 Maignan, I. (2001). Consumers' perceptions of corporate social responsibilities: A cross cultural comparison. Journal of Business Ethics, 30 (1), 57-72. DOI: 10.1023/A:1006433928640
15 Pandey, D. P. (2007). Cause related marketing. Indian Journal of Marketing, 38 (10), 10-18, 25.
16 Polonsky, M.J., & Wood, G. (2001). Can the overcommercialization of cause related marketing harm society? Journal of Marketing, 21(1), 8-22. DOI: 10.1177/0276146701211002
17 Ross, J.K., Patterson, L. T., & Stutts, M. A. (1992). Consumer perceptions of organizations that use cause- related marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 20 (1), 93-97. DOI : 10.1007/BF02723480
18 Smith, S. M., & Alcorn, D. S. (1991). Cause marketing : A new direction in the marketing of corporate responsibility. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 8 (3), 19 - 35.
19 Srinivasulu, Y. (2006). Cause related marketing: An incitement strategy. Indian Journal of Marketing, 37 (9), 17- 18, 40.
20 Thompson, C. J., Locander, W. B., & Pollio, H. R. (1999). Putting consumer experience back into consumer research: The philosophy and method of existential phenomenology. Journal of Consumer Research , 16 (2), 133-146.
21 Webb, D. J., & Mohr, L. A. (1998). A typology of consumer responses to cause - related marketing: From skeptics to socially concerned. Journal of Public Policy and Retailing, 17 (2), 226- 238.
Harish Chaudhry
Assistant Professor of Marketing
Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Delhi), Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016 .
harishc@dms.iitd.ac.in , hciitd@gmail.com


Shruti Gupta
Senior Research Scholar (Doctoral Fellow)
Department of Management Studies
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Delhi)
Hauz Khas, New Delhi -110 016 .

Assessment of Effectiveness of Subsidized Food Grain Distribution in India with Respect to Rice and Wheat
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(1), 49 - 59
This paper assessed the rationale of public policy intervention in rice and wheat markets in India. Specifically, this study compared the government's economic cost for subsidized distribution of rice and wheat with the domestic market prices to examine the economic viability of the public distribution system. The statistical grouping of domestic market prices of rice and wheat displayed a significant inter-year variation in the recent years from 2007 to 2011. The price increase was much higher for rice than for wheat. The government's economic costs for distribution of rice and wheat through the public distribution system were close to the domestic prices. The paper presents a critical analysis of the government's policy on subsidized grain distribution. Suggestions on government policy and the role of the private sector are explained in the Indian scenario. Furthermore, possibilities for price stabilization in the private food grain market, control over food inflation, and scope for tax revenues for government from the private sector are also discussed.
Keywords: public distribution system, grain market, economic cost, food inflation, food grain distribution
Paper Submission Date: June 3, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : September 9, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : October 2 , 2014
1 Acharya, S. S., Chand, R., Birthal, P. S., Kumar, S., & Negi, D. S. (2012). Market integration and price transmission in India: A case of rice and wheat with special reference to the world food crisis of 2007/08 (p. 7). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-an034e.pdf
2 Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance. (2011). Economic survey 2010-11. Government of India, New Delhi. Retrieved from http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2010-11/estat1.pdf
3 Department of Food and Public Distribution, Ministry of Consumer Affairs. (2012). Annual report 2011-12. Government of India, New Delhi. Retrieved from http://dfpd.nic.in/fcamin/annualreport/annual-2011-12.pdf
4 Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. (2012). Agricultural statistics at a glance 2011. Retrieved from http://eands.dacnet.nic.in/latest_2006.htm
5 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2011). The state of food insecurity in the world. How does international price volatility affect domestic economies and food security? Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2330e/i2330e.pdf
6 Ghosh, M. (2010). Spatial price linkages in food grain markets in India. The Journal of Applied Economic Research, 4 (4), 495-516. DOI: 10.1177/097380101000400405.
7 Gulati, A., Sharma, P., & Kahkonen, S. (1996). The Food Corporation of India: Successes and failures in Indian food grain marketing (IRIS Working Paper No. 18). Center for Institutional Reform and the Informal Sector, College Park, MD, USA.
8 Jha, S., Srinivasan, P. V., & Landes, M. (2007). Indian wheat and rice sector policies and the implications of reform (p. 7). Economic Research Report No. 41, USDA Research Service.
9 Naik, S. N., & Kaushik, G. (2011). Grain storage in India: An overview (p.2). Centre for Rural Development & Technology, IIT, New Delhi.
10 Pal, B. (2011). Organization and working of public distribution system in India: A critical analysis. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 1 (1), 4-10.
11 Planning Commission. (2011). Report of the Steering Committee on Rapid poverty reduction and local area development for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012). Government of India. New Delhi.
12 Radhakrishna, R., & Indrakant, S. (1988). Effects of rice market intervention policies in India: The case of Andhra Pradesh. In Evaluating rice market intervention policies: Some Asian examples (pp. 237- 321). Asian Development Bank.
13 Sharma, V. P. (2012). Food subsidy in India: Trends, causes and policy reform options (W.P. No. 2012-08- 02). Retrieved from http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/assets/snippets/workingpaperpdf/5337679172012-08-02.pdf
14 Singh, P. K. (2010). A decentralized and holistic approach for grain management in India. Current Science, 99 (9), 1179-1180.
15 Srinivasan, P. V., & Jha, S. (2001, September 29). Taking the PDS to the poor: Directions for further reform. Economic and Political Weekly, 36 (39), 3779-3786.
16 United States Department of Agriculture. (2012). Grain: World markets and trade. Retrieved from http://www.fas.usda.gov/grain/circular/2012/04-12/grainfull04-12.pdf
Amudhasurabi A.
Assistant Professor
Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology
Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamil Nadu.
Digvir S. Jayas
Vice-President (Research and International) and Distinguished Professor
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2.

Alagusundaram K.
Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology
Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamil Nadu.

Book Review - Private Label Strategy : How to Meet the Store Brand Challenge
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(1), 60 - 62
The present book review analyzed Nirmalya Kumar and Jan – Benedict E. M. Steenkamp 's book - Private Label Strategy: How to Meet the Store Brand Challenge. This book brings together two areas - new strategy of retailers for private labels and strategy of brand manufacturers for private labels. Retailers in the present times are more powerful and globalized, and are focusing on their own brands to gain increased profits. Old myths about private labels have now vanished. Consumers' attitude towards private labels is remarkably positive, and it is a challenge for brand manufacturers to think again in a new frame. The main competitive advantage of manufacturer brands is the universal availability and innovation, and now, both are in trouble. A different approach is now essential if brand manufacturers want to stay in the game.
Keywords: Brands, private labels, manufacturer brands, strategy, retail
Paper Submission Date: August 27, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision: December 1, 2014; Paper Acceptance Date : December 11 , 2014
  Ruchita Pangriya
Freelancer – Management Consultant
C V Raman Nagar, Bangalore.