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Indian Journal of Finance | Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management | Arthshastra: Indian Journal of Economics & Research |
 

   Volume 45 • Number 2 • February 2015

 
I Know it, so I do not Need to Touch it: Role of Brand Familiarity in Tactile Product Evaluation
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 7 - 19
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of brand familiarity in tactile product evaluation. The results of the two experimental studies showed that individual differences in need for tactile input affect purchase intentions depending upon the structure of the choice environment and familiarity levels of a brand. The well-developed knowledge structures for familiar brands allow consumers to access the diagnostic tactile cues from their memory in product assessment in an online environment. Conversely, for less familiar brands, the inaccessibility of predictive tactile cues in an online shopping environment reduces the purchase intentions. This study makes three important contributions. First, it showed that tactile inputs have a positive effect on purchase intentions in the touch environment, particularly for individuals with high levels of need for tactile input. Second, it posited that the lack of tactility can be overcome by offering familiar brands in the no-touch environment. Finally, it showed that for low need tactile input individuals, lack of tactility does not impede them from making online purchases. The paper discussed the implications of research findings and offered future research avenues along with limitations.
Keywords : tactile, brand familiarity, online purchase, touch environment
Paper Submission Date: May 5, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : September 29, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : October 24, 2014
References
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3 Citrin, A. V., Stem Jr, D. E., Spangenberg, E. R., & Clark, M. J. (2003). Consumer need for tactile input: An internet retailing challenge. Journal of Business Research, 56 (11), 915-922.
4 Coyle, J. R., & Thorson, E. (2001). The effects of progressive levels of interactivity and vividness in web marketing sites. Journal of Advertising, 30 (3), 65-77. DOI:10.1080/00913367.2001.10673646
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8 Delgado-Ballester, E., & Hernández-Espallardo, M. (2008). Building online brands through brand alliances in internet. European Journal of Marketing, 42(9/10), 954-976. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090560810891091
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11 Feldman, J. M., & Lynch Jr., J. G. (1988). Self-generated validity and other effects of measurement on belief, attitude, intention, and behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73 (3), 421-435.
12 Fenko, A., Schifferstein, H. N. J., Huang, T. - C., & Hekkert, P. (2009). What makes products fresh: The smell or the colour ? Food Quality and Preference, 20(5), 372-379. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2009.02.007
13 Fleck, N., Korchia, M., & Le Roy, I. (2012). Celebrities in advertising: Looking for congruence or likability? Psychology & Marketing, 29 (9), 651-662. DOI: 10.1002/mar.20551
14 Grohmann, B., Spangenberg, E. R., & Sprott, D. E. (2007). The influence of tactile input on the evaluation of retail product offerings. Journal of Retailing, 83 (2), 237-245.
15 Ha, H. - Y. (2004). Factors influencing consumer perceptions of brand trust online. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 13 (5), 329-342. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610420410554412
16 Ha, H. - Y., & Perks, H. (2005). Effects of consumer perceptions of brand experience on the web: Brand familiarity, satisfaction and brand trust. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4 (6), 438-452. DOI: 10.1002/cb.29
17 Hoyer, W. D., & Brown, S. P. (1990). Effects of brand awareness on choice for a common, repeat-purchase product. Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (2), 141-148. DOI: http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1086/208544
18 Huang, W. Y., Schrank, H., & Dubinsky, A. J. (2004). Effect of brand name on consumers' risk perceptions of online shopping. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4 (1), 40-50. DOI: 10.1002/cb.156
19 Jha, S., & Singh, B. (2013). Impact of ambient music and affability of salespersons on consumer behavior in a real retail setting with emphasis on gender difference. Indian Journal of Marketing, 43 (4), 5-11.
20 Klatzky, R. L. (2009). Touch: A gentle tutorial with implications for marketing. In A. Krishna (Ed.). Sensory marketing research on the sensuality of product (pp.33-48). New York: Routledge Academic.
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22 Klein, L. R. (2003). Creating virtual product experiences: the role of telepresence. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17 (1), 41-55. DOI: 10.1002/dir.10046
23 Martinez, E., & de Chernatony, L. (2004). The effect of brand extension strategies upon brand image. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21 (1), 39-50. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07363760410513950
24 McCabe, D. B., & Nowlis, S. M. (2003). The effect of examining actual products or product descriptions on consumer preference. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13 (4), 431-439. DOI:10.1207/S15327663JCP1304_10
25 Menon, G., Raghubir, P., & Schwarz, N. (1995). Behavioral frequency judgments: An accessibility-diagnosticity framework. Journal of Consumer Research, 22 (2), 212-228.
26 Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
27 Nuszbaum, M., Voss, A., & Klauer, K. C. (2014). Assessing individual differences in the need for interpersonal touch and need for touch. Social Psychology, 45 (1), 31- 40. DOI : http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1027/1864-9335/a000157
28 Park, J., & Stoel, L. (2005). Effect of brand familiarity, experience and information on online apparel purchase. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 33 (2), 148-160. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09590550510581476
29 Peck, J., & Childers, T. L. (2003). Individual differences in haptic information processing: The “need for touch” scale. Journal of Consumer Research, 30 (3), 430-442.
30 Prince, J. T., & Simon, D. H. (2009). Multimarket contact and service quality: Evidence from on-time performance in the U.S. airline industry. Academy of Management Journal, 52 (2), 336-354. DOI: 10.5465/AMJ.2009.37308251
31 Rindfleisch, A., & Inman, J. (1998). Explaining the familiarity-liking relationship: Mere exposure, information availability, or social desirability? Marketing Letters, 9 (1), 5-19.
32 Shukla, T. (2007). Experiential marketing. The new paradigm. Indian Journal of Marketing , 37 (4), 10 - 12.
33 Söderlund, M. (2002). Customer familiarity and its effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Psychology & Marketing, 19(10), 861-879.
34 Wånke, M., Bohner, G., & Jurkowitsch, A. (1997). There are many reasons to drive a BMW: Does imagined ease of argument generation influence attitudes? Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (2), 170-178. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1086/209502
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Subhash Jha
Assistant Professor of Marketing
Indian Institute of Management Udaipur (IIMU)
MLSU Campus, Udaipur- 313 001, Rajasthan.
subhash.jha@iimu.ac.in 

 
M. S. Balaji
Lecturer
Taylor's Business School
Taylor's University, No 1, Jalan Taylors
47500 Selangor, Malaysia.
makambalaji77@gmail.com
 
 
Coffee Chains Brewing Up the Taste Quotient of Indian Consumers : An Empirical Study in Delhi NCR
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 20 - 30

Indians largely have been accustomed to drinking tea, and coffee has been considered as a drink for the high - end population. However, this notion is changing, and the coffee culture in India is flourishing with the entrance of local and international brands of coffee chains. In addition to serving hot and cold varieties of coffee and snacks, coffee shops provide a leisurely experience and space to bring people closer to each other. With increasing number of players entering in the café market, the competition is mounting, and creating a space in the minds of the customers will be an uphill task for these outlets. This research highlighted the perceptual mapping of four coffee chains, that is, Café Coffee Day, Costa Coffee, Barista, and Starbucks. With a sample of 120 respondents, this paper attempted to explore various factors that may influence the selection of a particular coffee shop, and in addition, the paper also examined the respondents' purpose of visiting the coffee shops. Discriminant analysis was applied to construct the perception map of the customers. The results revealed that product quality and ambience were the most important attributes affecting customers' decision making in selection of coffee outlets.

Keywords: coffee chains, perceptual mapping, discriminant analysis, perception map
Paper Submission Date: June 3, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision: September 9, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : October 2, 2014

References
1 Abel, N. (2009). Determinants of customer loyalty in the specialty coffee industry: The differences between customer loyalty to an independent coffee shop and Starbucks (Bachelor's Thesis). Retrieved from http://adr.coalliance.org/coccc/fez/eserv/coccc:1342/AbelThesis_A1b.pdf
2 Auty, S. (1992). Consumer choice and segmentation in the restaurant industry. The Services Industries Journal, 12 (3), 324-339. DOI:10.1080/02642069200000042
3 Burge, S. A. (2013). The motivational reasons behind consumer choice in branded coffee shops. Retrieved from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/iatl/reinvention/issues/bcur2013specialissue/burge/
4 Café Coffee Day. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved from http://www.cafecoffeeday.com/aboutus
5 Chen, P.-T., & Hu, H.- H. (2010). How determinant attributes of service quality influence customer-perceived value: An empirical investigation of the Australian coffee outlet industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22 (4), 535-551. DOI 10.1108/09596111011042730
6 Chow, I. H.-S., Lau, V. P., Lo, T. W.-C., Sha, Z., & Yun, H. (2007). Service quality in restaurant operations in China: Decision- and experiential-oriented perspectives. Hospitality Management, 26 (3), 689-710. DOI:10.1016/j.ijhm.2006.07.001
7 Costa Coffee to open 200 more stores in India by 2015. (2013, March, 26). Business Standard. Retrieved from http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/costa-coffee-to-open-200-more-stores-in-india-by-2015-113032300371_1.html
8 Ganguly, S. (2012, October 19). Indian cafe market to be $410 million industry by 2017: Technopak. The Economic Times. Retrieved from http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-10-19/news/34584301_1_technopak-share-cafe-market
9 Gregoire, M.B., Shanklin, C.W., Greathouse, K.R., & Tripp, C. (1995). Factors influencing restaurant selection by travellers who stop at visitor information centres. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 4 (2), 41-50. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J073v04n02_03
10 Hung, L.-M. (2012). A study of consuming behaviors of budget coffee. Business and Management Research, 1 (1), 48-61. DOI:10.5430/bmr.v1n1p48
11 John, D. R., Loken, B., Kim, K. H., & Monga, A. B. (2005). Brand concept maps: A methodology for identifying brand association networks. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(4), 549 - 563. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.4.549
12 Kapferer, J. (2004). The new strategic brand management (Third Edition). London: Kogan Page.
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14 Keller, K.L. (1993). Conceptualising, measuring, and managing customer- based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57 (1), 1-22.
15 Kotler, P. (1988). The potential contributions of marketing thinking to economic development. Research in Marketing, 4 (1), 1-10.
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17 Ly, L. S. (2011). A multi-method exploration on coffee shop atmospherics (Master's Thesis). Retrieved from http://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/7523/1/Ly_MSc_S2011.pdf
18 Nadiri, H., & Gunay, G. N. (2013). An empirical study to diagnose the outcomes of customers' experiences in trendy coffee shops. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 14(1), 22-53. DOI:10.3846/16111699.2011.631742
19 Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., & Berry, L.L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64 (1), 12-40.
20 Rao, C.P., & Kelkar, M.M. (1997). Relative impact of performance and importance ratings on measurement of service quality. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 15 (2), 69-86. DOI:10.1300/J090v15n02_06
21 Rooney, J. A. (1995). Branding: A trend for today and tomorrow. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 4 (4), 48-55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610429510097690
22 Ryu, K., & Han, H. (2010). Influence of the quality of food, service, and physical environment on customer satisfaction and behavioral intention in quick-casual restaurants: Moderating role of perceived price. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 34 (3), 310-329. DOI: 10.1177/1096348009350624
23 Schmitt, B., & Simonson, A. (1997). Marketing aesthetics: Strategic management of brands, identity, and image. New York: The Free Press.
24 Siliconindia. (2013, May, 20). Coffee chains : A growing business in India. Retrieved from http://www.siliconindia.com/news/business/Coffee-Chains-A-Growing-Business-In-India-nid-147376-cid-3.html
25 Sutawidjaya, A. H., Tuti, W., & Suharyanti (2012). The influence of service quality on customer satisfaction (study in Starbucks Coffee - Indonesia). The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management. September 6-7, 2012 (pp. 264- 282). Phuket, Thailand.
26 Tseng, J. S., & Min, C. (2012). An analysis and evaluation of customers' motivations and intentions to use chain coffee shops in Taiwan : A case study of Crown Coffee and 85 Degrees Celsius Coffee in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Retrieved from http://ir.nkuht.edu.tw/retrieve/1971/2013-027.pdf
27 Uncles, M. D., Dowling, G. R., & Hammond, K. (2003). Customer loyalty and customer loyalty programs. Journal of Customer Marketing, 20 (4), 294-316. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/07363760310483676
28 van Kleef, E., van Trijp, H. C. M., & Luning, P. (2004). Consumer research in the early stages of new product development: A critical review of methods and techniques. Food Quality and Preference, 16 (3), 181 - 201. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2004.05.012
29 Wang, S. Y. (2000). A study of market segmentation and consumer behavior in coffee chain shops (Master Thesis). Graduate Institute of Business Administration, National Dong- Hwa University, Hualien County.
30 Waxman, L. (2006). The coffee shop: Social and physical factors influencing place attachment. Journal of Interior Design, 31 (3), 35-53.
31 Xu, J., Wang, S., & He, B. (2013). Customer loyalty to coffee shops: A study of Swedish Generation Y (Bachelor's thesis). Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:626114/FULLTEXT01.pdf
32 Yu, H., & Fang, W. (2009). Relative impacts from product quality, service quality, and experience quality on customer perceived value and intention to shop for the coffee shop market. Total Quality Management, 20 (11), 1273 - 1285 DOI: 10.1080/14783360802351587
Deepa Kapoor
Assistant Professor
Amity School of Business
F-3 Block, Amity University Campus, Sector 125
Noida - 201 303, Uttar Pradesh.
dkapoor@amity.edu
Alka Munjal
Director Academics
Amity University
E-2 Block, Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
amunjal@amity.edu


.
 
 
 
Eradication of Plastic Carry Bags : The Shop Owners' Perception
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 31 - 40
Polythene bags, popularly referred to as plastic carry bags, are one of the most hazardous substances in the world, causing a lot of damage to the earth and its sustainability. Since the main source of supply of the plastic carry bags to the public are the shop owners, that is, super markets, vegetable & fruit vendors, and bakery and grocery stores, an empirical study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the shop owners about the hazards of plastic carry bags and their perceptions on how to eradicate them. Statistical tools like chi square test, weighted arithmetic mean, and K means cluster analysis were used to analyze the data collected from 400 shop owners belonging to various types of businesses. Three clusters of shop owners were identified - namely Defaulters, Ignorant Defaulters, and Partial Compliers. Bakery and grocery stores were found to be the major defaulters. The study found that strict implementation of the Plastic Waste Management and Handling Rules is the need of the hour.
Keywords : hazardous substances, eradication, awareness, waste management, plastic bags
Paper Submission Date : January 1, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : April 25, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : August 17, 2014
References
1 Adane, L., & Muleta, D. (2011). Survey on the usage of plastic bags, their disposal and adverse impacts on environment: A case study in Jimma city, Southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health Sciences , 3 (8), 234-248.
2 Clap, J., & Swanston, L. (2009). Doing away with plastic shopping bags: International patterns of norm emergence & policy implementation. Environmental Politics , 18 (3), 315-332. DOI:10.1080/09644010902823717
3 Mangizvo, R. V. (2012). The incidence of plastic waste and their effects in Alice, South Africa. Online Journal of Social Sciences Research , 1 (2), 49-53.
4 Plastic Shopping Bag. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved June 28, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_shopping_bag
5 Rajat, R. (n.d.). Eradicating plastics not so easy. Retrieved from http://www.mangalorean.net/browsearticles.php?arttype=Feature&articleid=1781
6 Ramaswamy, V., & Sharma, H. R. (2011). Plastic bags - Threat to environment & cattle health: A retrospective study from Gondar City of Ethiopia. The IIOAB Journal - Special issue on the Environmental Management for Sustainable Development , 2 (1), 7-12.
7 Rita, P. (n.d.). Environmental pollution - the harmful effects of plastic bags. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/environmental-pollution-the-harmful-effects-of-plastic-bags.html
8 Sohail, S. (n.d.). Plastic waste: Will the new rules clear up the clogged mess? Retrieved from http://www.cseindia.org/node/3705
9 Zerowaste Europe. (n.d.). Phasing out single- use plastic bags. Retrieved from http://www.zerowasteeurope.eu/2010/09/phasing-out-single-use-plastic-bags/
P. S. Valarmathy
Professor
Galaxy Institute of Management
Tambaram - Sriperumbudhur Highway, Vellarai
Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu.
psvalar62@gmail.com

 
 
Determinants of Price of Mustard Seed and Mustard Oil in Domestic Markets of India
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 41 - 46
India imports about half of its domestic consumption needs of edible oils. Among the different edible oilseeds grown in India, mustard occupies an important position as a large proportion of the Indian population consumes it as a vegetable oil. The farmers' decision regarding area allocation under oilseed crops is largely influenced by the prices of oilseeds. The study attempted to find the determinants of price of mustard seed and mustard oil in the domestic markets of India. A multiple linear regression analysis was fitted for the time series data. The results revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between prices of sesame seed and mustard seed as well as between prices of soya oil and mustard oil. Therefore, it was concluded that sesame seed and soya oil were the close substitutes of the mustard seed and mustard oil respectively in the selected markets.
Keywords : determinants of price, multiple regression, prices of substitute crops, mustard seed, mustard oil
Paper Submission Date : January 10, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : May 20, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : June 9, 2014
References
1 Kumar, K. N. R., Lakshmi, K.S., & Raju, V.T. (2001). Price response analysis of agricultural commodities in Anakapalle regulated market of Andhra Pradesh. Agricultural Marketing, 44 (2), 17-19.
2 Kumar, K. N. R., Raju, V. T., & Lakshmi, K. S. (2000). Determinants of prices in regulated market under the Warangal Market Committee, Andhra Pradesh. Agricultural Marketing, 43 (2), 14-15.
3 Narayan, P., Chauhan, M. S., & Chauhan, S. (2011). Oilseeds scenario in India. Agriculture Today, December, 40-43.
4 Nasurudeen, P., & Subramanian, S. R. (1995). Price integration of oils and oilseeds. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 50 (4), 624 - 633.
Dinesh Chand Meena
Scientist (Agril. Economics)
Central Soil and Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, Research Centre,
Agra-282 006, Uttar Pradesh.
dineshbhu195@gmail.com

 
O. P. Singh
Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics
Department of Agricultural Economics
Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi-221 005, Uttar Pradesh.
ompsingh@gmail.com

Maina Kumari
Research Scholar
Department of Agricultural Economics
Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi-221 005, Uttar Pradesh.
maina.meena1309@gmail.com
 
 
Should I Win or Should I not Lose? : A Research Framework Exploring the Role of Motivation in Processing Brand Related Information in Advergames
Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 47 - 58
Extant research dealing with information processing in advergames focuses mostly on players' limited capacity aspect of attention and persuasion knowledge, persuasive potency of advergames, information-processing fluency, and the development of flow and arousal among players. One primary facet of advergames that remains under-investigated is the effect of game outcomes, that is, wins and losses, on players' motivation and the influence of outcome-induced motivation on information processing. Furthermore, earlier studies predominantly considered players' explicit memory like brand recall and recognition while ignoring a salient unconscious measure, namely implicit memory. This paper provides a conceptual framework that explored the influence of advergame outcomes and messages on players' motivation and its subsequent impact on processing embedded brand elements. Conceptual fabric of the proposed model was derived from a motivational principle, regulatory focus theory, and implicit memory literature to explain how outcome-induced motivation influences players' nature of information processing, implicit memory, emotions, and brand and game attitudes. Academic and managerial implications were also discussed.
Keywords: advergames, advergame outcome, implicit memory, information processing, motivation, regulatory focus
Paper Submission Date: June 3, 2014; Paper sent back for Revision : December 2, 2014 ; Paper Acceptance Date : December 10 , 2014
Tathagata Ghosh
Assistant Professor
Department of Marketing and Strategy
E-209, ICFAI Business School Hyderabad
Survey No. 156/157, Donthanapally Village
Shankerpalli Mandal, Ranga Reddy District - 501 203
Hyderabad.
tghosh@ibsindia.org 
 
Venu Gopal Rao
Associate Professor and Coordinator
Department of Marketing and Strategy
C-102, ICFAI Business School Hyderabad
Survey No. 156/157, Donthanapally Village
Shankerpalli Mandal, Ranga Reddy District - 501 203
Hyderabad.
venugopal@ibsindia.org
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12 Evans, N.J., Carlson, L., & Hoy, M.G. (2013). Coddling our kids: Can parenting style affect attitudes toward advergames? Journal of Advertising, 42 (2/3), 228-240. DOI:10.1080/00913367.2013.774602
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18 Hernandez, M.D., & Chapa, S. (2010). Adolescents, advergames and snack foods: Effects of positive affect and experience on memory and choice. Journal of Marketing Communication, 16 (1/2), 59-68. DOI:10.1080/1352726090334276
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